Natural Gas Processing Plants Natural gas is valuable both as a clean source of energy and as a chemical feedstock. Before reaching the customer, it has to pass several processing steps.
Die Wartung und Überprüfung von Gasanlagen wird in verschiedenen Gesetzten und Normen geregelt. Nachstehend sind die wesentlichen Anforderungen überblicksartig zusammengefasst
714-X was developed by Gaston Naessens, a native of France and tried there for practicing medicine without a license. Naessens moved to Quebec and continued his research from the early 1970s. In 1989 he was arrested but acquitted from charges of accessory to murder, after a cancer patient using 714-X died following refusal to take conventional medi
Toxin theory of cancer: In this idea, the body's metabolic processes are overwhelmed by normal, everyday byproducts. These byproducts, called
Despite this, many of these therapies have continued to be promoted as effective, particularly by promoters of alternative medicine. Scientists consider this practice quackery, and some of those engaged in it have been investigated and prosecuted by public health regulators such as the US Federal Trade Commission, the Mexican Secretariat of Health
Cancer patients who choose alternative treatments instead of conventional treatments believe themselves less likely to die than patients who choose only conventional treatments. They feel a greater sense of control over their destinies, and report less anxiety and depression. They are more likely to engage in benefit finding, which is the psycholog
In Australia, one study reported that 46% of children suffering from cancer have been treated with at least one non-traditional therapy. Further 40% of those of any age receiving palliative care had tried at least one such therapy. Some of the most popular alternative cancer treatments were found to be dietary therapies, antioxidants, high dose vit
Complementary treatments are used in conjunction with proven mainstream treatments. They tend to be pleasant for the patient, not involve substances with any pharmacological effects, inexpensive, and intended to treat side effects rather than to kill cancer cells. Medical massage and self-hypnosis to treat pain are examples of complementary treatme
A distinction is typically made between complementary treatments which do not disrupt conventional medical treatment, and alternative treatments which may replace conventional treatment. Alternative cancer treatments are typically contrasted with experimental cancer treatments – which are treatments for which experimental testing is underway – and
Most male birds have no phallus. In the males of species without a phallus, sperm is stored in the seminal glomera within the cloacal protuberance prior to copulation. During copulation, the female moves her tail to the side and the male either mounts the female from behind or in front (as in the stitchbird), or moves very close to her. The cloacae
There are four general ways in which birds drink: using gravity itself, sucking, use of the tongue, and deriving water entirely from food.
The walls of these sacs do not have a good blood supply and so do not play a direct role in gas exchange. They act like a series of bellows to move air unidirectionally through the respiratory system. Birds lack a diaphragm, so rather than the regular expansion and contraction of the respiratory organs as is seen in mammals, the air sacs allow the
The skin muscles help a bird in its flight by adjusting the feathers, which are attached to the skin muscle and help the bird in its flight maneuvers.
Bird embryos begin development with smooth skin. On the feet, the corneum, or outermost layer, of this skin may keratinize, thicken and form scales. These scales can be organized into;
Syndactyly, as it occurs in birds, is like anisodactyly, except that the third and fourth toes (the outer and middle forward-pointing toes), or three toes, are fused together, as in the belted kingfisher Ceryle alcyon. This is characteristic of Coraciiformes (kingfishers, bee-eaters, rollers, etc.).
The bird skeleton is highly adapted for flight. It is extremely lightweight but strong enough to withstand the stresses of taking off, flying, and landing. One key adaptation is the fusing of bones into single ossifications, such as the pygostyle. Because of this, birds usually have a smaller number of bones than other terrestrial vertebrates. Bird
A large concrete slab, in the shape of an arrow, was located near the base of each beacon. Many of these arrows remain today, some of which are visible from satellite pictures, even in urban settings.
The CDC 160-A was a simple piece of hardware, and yet provided a variety of features which were scaled-down capabilities found only on larger systems. It was therefore an ideal platform for introducing neophyte programmers to the sophisticated concepts of low-level Input/output (I/O) and interrupt systems.
Multiple individual wind turbines and / or small wind farms can cause considerable cumulative impacts, especially where these are randomly located or of different designs. Despite generally smaller turbine heights there is still a need for developments to be sited and designed in relation to each other in order to avoid negative impacts on landscap
Wind energy developments should be designed to relate to landscape pattern where this contributes to landscape character and visual composition. However, the elements of landscape pattern to which a wind farm should relate will be strongly affected by their scale and prominence.
Wind energy generation may form one part of many different land uses. Existing developments vary in their location from urban areas, industrial and harbour areas, agricultural ground, woodland, and moorland. Wind energy can relate to some land uses. Conversely, wind farms are less likely to relate well to wild land areas and sensitive residential l
Landscape scale and openness are particularly important characteristics in relation to wind turbines because large wind turbines can easily seem to dominate some landscapes. For this reason, landscape scale can dictate the ability of an area to accommodate wind farm development, both horizontally and vertically.
It is very difficult to design a wind farm upon a variable landform, such as undulating, rugged moorland or hills, without presenting a confusing image. This is because the wind turbines will be seen from different directions, at varying elevations and spacing, and against varying backdrops. To avoid this effect, it is generally preferable for wind
type, route and design of access tracks, including the amount of cut and fill required and the junctions with public roads;
The impact of a wind farm will depend on how,and from where,it is experienced; for example, from inside a residence, while moving along a road, or from a remote mountaintop. These factors are taken into account through LVIA when determining the sensitivity of the landscape and visual resource, and the people that will be affected by the development
Some of the areas where wildness qualities predominatelie outside designated areas and therefore lack any statutory protection. However, SPP recognises their sensitivity and tasks Planning Authorities to take great care to safeguard their character through specific policies in Development Plans. In 2002,we identified ‘Search Areas for Wild Land’(SA
LCAs do not place value on one landscape type over another, but they may point to the reasons why a landscape might be valued, because of special characteristics or the experience the landscape offers.Landscape and scenic value is recognised at national and local levels through de
how new development would affect it or, with appropriate design, could contribute to it. Landscape Character Assessment (LCA) helps us understand what the landscape is like today, how it came to be like this and how it may change in the future. LCA helps to en sure that change does not undermine whatever is characteristic or valued about a particul
Reference is made to the categories of wind farm size listed below. This grouping is for the sake of simplification:
–firstly, during the design stage to ensure that turbine layout is satisfactory from key viewpoints and achieves the design objectives. It can also be used to maximise the screening benefits of landform or landcover from key viewpoints.
From this starting point turbines will be moved or removed due to physical constraints, such as watercourses, areas of deep peat and steep slopes, and in response to sensitive habitat or wildlife species. During this process of modification, landscape and visual issues will also inform the layout. Although some landscape and visual concerns –such a
There may be practical constraints in delivering large turbine components to a site, for example, due to the limitations of rural bridges, road junctions or corners. Additional landscape and visual impacts, associated with widening of roads, access tracks and corners to enable transport
Choice of turbine size is an integral part of the design process. Identification of the key landscape characteristics, their sensitivity and capacity to accommodate change will inform this. Generally speaking, large wind turbines will appear out of scale and visually dominant in lowland, settled, or smaller-scale landscapes, which are often charact
In some locations it may be necessary to light wind turbines for reasons of civil or military aviation safety or, for offshore wind farms, marine safety. Such lighting, typically at the top of the tower of the wind turbine, may appear prominent in night views and be incongruous in predominantly un-lit rural areas. Where lighting is necessary, it sh
the immediate landscape context and anticipated backcloth against which the turbines will be viewed predominantly (for example sky, heather moorland, woodland, sea horizon). Colour contrast is an important factor affecting visibility. Generally, the base of a turbine is seen against the land and the tower and moving blades seen against the sky, so
The landscape and visual impacts of a wind turbine vary not only with its size, but also with the make and model of the turbine proposed. Turbines of the same height may have varying appearances due to their different design and technical characteristics. There is an incre asingly varied selection of turbine designs now available, especially in the
The optimum tip speed ratio depends on the number of blades in the wind turbine rotor. The fewer the number of blades, the faster the wind turbine rotor needs to turn to extract maximum power from the wind. A two-bladed rotor has an optimum tip speed ratio of around 6, a three-bladed rotor around 5, and a four-bladed rotor around 3.
Rotor - The rotor is an elegant aerofoil shaped blades which take the wind and aerodynamically converts its kinetic energy into mechanical energy through a connected shaft.
Vertical Axis Wind Turbines - abbreviated as VAWTs, are designed with a vertical rotor shaft, a generator and gearbox which are placed at the bottom of the turbine, and a uniquely shaped rotor blade that is designed to harvest the power of the wind no matter which direction is it blowing.
In practice, most wind turbines have efficiencies well below 0.5, depending on the type, design and operational conditions. In the operational output range, wind power generated increases with wind speed cubed. In other words, at a wind speed of 5 m/s, the power output is proportional with 5 cubed = 125, whereas at a wind speed of 10 m/s, the power
This equation is known as the Bernoulli equation and is valid if the two points of interest 1 & 2 are very close to each other and there is no loss of energy.
The continuity equation applies the principle of conservation of mass to fluid flow. Consider a fluid flowing through a fixed conduit having one inlet and one outlet.
It must be stressed that wind energy involves no combustion or nuclear reaction, so it is pollution free. It is renewable and plentiful and free, and what is more it is available everywhere, especially in remote areas and often it is windier in mountains and near costal areas. There are significant environmental benefits obtained from using a renew
Avoid these installations, especially if it is an air force base or communication centres.
Furthermore, wind speed varies with temperature, season, and time of day. All these factors must be considered when choosing a site for a wind-powered generator.
Much attention has been paid recently to Renewables as a potential source of fuel. The rising oil price and the logistics in supplying fossil fuel to remote areas are the main drive to Renewables as well as the environmental incentive. In remote locations, stand-alone Renewable energy systems can be more cost-effective than extending a power line t
A major leap in the nineteenth century was achieved by the discovery of oil in the Middle East. This unfortunate discovery eventually led to TWO World wars as the leading industrial nations attempted to dominate the world market and to secure the energy supply for their huge manufacturing industries.
Coal produces the highest amount of Carbon dioxide for a given output of energy; then oil, then Natural gas which produces nearly half the emission of coal and a third less than that of oil.
Kinetic energy of the oncoming air strikes the rotor blades, turning them, and hence the axial kinetic energy is turned into mechanical energy of the rotating blades.
Forms Of Energy - Mechanical Energy - Electrical Energy - Chemical Energy - Nuclear Energy - Thermal Energy
Unit of energy is the Joule (J). The rate of producing energy is POWER which has the unit of Joule per second or the Watt (W).
It’s a good idea to check the Washington Labor and Industries website to learn more about the listed contractor, licensing status, violations, etc.
The effect of a solar system on the appraised value of your home can be hard to predict, but according to a study by ICF Consulting, every $1,000 reduction in annual energy bills increases a home’s resale value by $10,000 to $25,000. However, homes are generally valued in comparison to similarly sized and aged homes around them, and if there aren’t
Net metering allows solar customers to receive retail electricity rates for the electricity they generate. If you generate more electricity over a billing period than you consume, City Light will credit your electric bill for every kilowatt-hour of electricity sent back to the power grid. The credit is applied at the retail rate for power. Net mete
Your contractor must submit an electrical drawing and the system will be subject to a field inspection after installation. Typical field-inspection permit fees for small systems are approximately $190. If your system design is atypical, your contractor may be required to go through a plan review.
While any excess production from month to month will carry over as a credit on your utility bill (net metering), you will not want to install a system that produces more than 100% of your power as the utility will not reimburse you for excess power produced at the end of the year.3 You may also not want to size the system too large if you are plann
Optimal orientation for solar panels is true south. As you move away from true south, a system will suffer production losses, up to as much as 15–25% for panels oriented east or west. However with advancements in technology these losses are decreasing as inverter manufacturers learn how to maximize off-of-south orientations. In Seattle, solar panel
DC Disconnect—The DC Disconnect is a safety device that, when manually opened, stops power running from the array to the rest of the system. The DC disconnect is used during system installation and anytime your contractor needs to work on the system.
A solar electric or PV cell uses a semiconductor material similar to that used in computer chips to absorb sunlight and convert it into electricity. Multiple solar cells are linked together to form a module or panel. Multiple modules/panels are connected to form a PV array.
Cathode ray tubes produce crisp, vibrant images, but they do have a serious drawback: They are bulky. In order to increase the screen width in a CRT set, you also have to increase the length of the tube (to give the scanning electron gun room to reach all parts of the screen). Consequently, any big-screen CRT television is going to weigh a ton and
Flash memory is a type of EEPROM chip. It has a grid of columns and rows with a cell that has two transistors at each intersection (see image below). The two transistors are separated from each other by a thin oxide layer. One of the transistors is known as a floating gate, and the other one is the control gate.
There are 24 hydroelectric energy production facilities in Minnesota. These facilities have a combined capacity of approximately 200 megawatts.
There are 13 energy production facilities in Minnesota primarily powered by biomass. These facilities have a combined capacity of approximately 260 megawatts.
Minnesota is in the top 10 in the nation for both installed wind capacity and net electricity produced from wind. Over one-seventh of the state’s net production came from wind power in 2012 (Retrieved from eia.gov).
Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) systems use mirrors or lenses to concentrate a large area of sunlight onto a small area to create heat that powers a stream turbine. Large surfaces are required for utility scale systems producing electricity using either technology.
Composting is the second leg of the three-legged stool. GB composting strives to produce the maximum amount of compost from the materials used. It also maximizes microbial biodiversity through a correctly built and “cured” compost pile using plant material from your farm, food scraps from your kitchen, and soil from the beds.
Forced ventilation works on the principle that fresh air flow is provided by mechanical ventilators. Most common solutions are either mechanically forced exhaust or mechanically forced supply and exhaust. In the first case, the exhaust suction is from bathrooms, toilets, kitchens and the intake is from the valves in the walls of living rooms and be
The bigger the both factors are the more intensive is the air change in rooms. This means that in colder weather conditions the rooms and the building is often over-ventilated and in warmer and windless weather, there is a lack of fresh air. As both of these factors are directly dependent on the external climate, the system is considered to be a no
Solar PV systems must be installed in accordance with Article 690 of the National Electric Code, which specifically deals with PV systems, as well as several other articles of the NEC that pertain to electrical systems in general. When there is a conflict between NEC 690 and any other article, NEC 690 takes precedence due to the unique nature of PV
A charge controller, sometimes referred to as a photovoltaic controller or battery charger, is only necessary in systems with battery back-up. The primary function of a charge controller is to prevent overcharging of the batteries. Most also include a lowvoltage disconnect that prevents over-discharging batteries. In addition, charge controllers pr
Batteries store direct current electrical energy for later use. This energy storage comes at a cost, however, since batteries reduce the efficiency and output of the PV system, typically by about 10 percent for lead-acid batteries. Batteries also increase the complexity and cost of the system.
Automatic and manual safety disconnects protect the wiring and components from power surges and other equipment malfunctions. They also ensure the system can be safely shut down and system components can be removed for maintenance and repair.
Most grid-connected inverters can be installed outdoors, while most off-grid inverters are not weatherproof. There are essentially two types of grid-interactive inverters: those designed for use with batteries and those designed for a system without batteries.
Grounding equipment provides a well-defined, low-resistance path from your system to the ground to protect your system from current surges from lightning strikes or equipment malfunctions. Grounding also stabilizes voltages and provides a common reference point. The grounding harness is usually located on the roof.
Arrays are most commonly mounted on roofs or on steel poles set in concrete. In certain applications, they may be mounted at ground level or on building walls. Solar modules can also be mounted to serve as part or all of a shade structure such as a patio cover. On roof-mounted systems, the PV array is typically mounted on fixed racks, parallel to t
The heart of a photovoltaic system is the solar module. Many photovoltaic cells are wired together by the manufacturer to produce a solar module. When installed at a site, solar modules are wired together in series to form strings. Strings of modules are connected in parallel to form an array.
The outer-most level corresponds to the individual devices and sensors that consumers interact with. Several candidates are vying for the role of a leader introducing smart home services to the mass market.
Looking at GB as a three-legged stool, deep soil preparation is one of the legs. Deep soil preparation builds soil and soil structure by loosening the soil to a depth of 24 inches (60 cm). Ideal soil structure has both pore space for air and water to move freely and soil particles that hold together nicely.